Ground survey refers to a type of land surveying that involves accurately determining the position of points and the distances and angles between them. It is commonly practiced by licensed surveyors and members of various building professions.0 A land survey is a graphic layout of a property that maps the legal boundaries and other features of a property that might be needed when it comes to solving any issues that might be brought up during real estate transactions.2 One of the primary roles of a land surveyor is to find the boundary of a person’s property, which is described in legal documents, and locates the boundary on the physical land and marks it, so the owner knows what land he/she owns.
LIDAR, or Light Detection and Ranging, is a remote sensing technology that uses lasers to measure distances on the Earth’s surface. It has gained popularity in the surveying industry and is used to create precise three-dimensional information about a specific area and its characteristics.1 Lidar-derived metrics and products have become a fundamental input to complex hydrologic and hydraulic models, flood inundation models, fault detection and geologic mapping, topographic and land-surface mapping, landslide and volcano hazards.0 Lidar is commonly used to make high-resolution maps, with applications in surveying, geodesy, geomatics, archaeology, geography, geology, geomorphology, seismology, forestry, atmospheric physics, laser guidance, airborne laser swathe mapping (ALSM), and laser altimetry.
A topographical survey is a crucial step in any construction or development project, providing a multi-dimensional depiction of a piece of property on a two-dimensional medium. It shows the height, depth, size, and location of any manmade or natural features on a given parcel of land, as well as the changes or contours in elevation throughout the parcel. Topographical surveys record the coordinates and elevation data of natural and artificial features within a designated survey area. Topographical surveyors are the workers garbed in reflective work vests and peering into the distance by looking into a telescope-like device.
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Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) technology has evolved dramatically in the 21st century. It is used by both military and general public for recreational purposes and mapping work. Operating cost for UAV is much cheaper compared to that of normal aircraft and it does not require a large work space. The UAV systems have similar functions with the LIDAR and satellite images technologies. These systems require a huge cost, labour and time consumption to produce elevation and dimension data. Measurement of difficult objects such as water tank can also be done by using UAV. The purpose of this paper is to show the capability of UAV to compute the volume of water tank based on a different number of images and control points. The results were compared with the actual volume of the tank to validate the measurement. In this study, the image acquisition was done using Phantom 3 Professional, which is a low cost UAV. The analysis in this study is based on different volume computations using two and four control points with variety set of UAV images. The results show that more images will provide a better quality measurement. With 95 images and four GCP, the error percentage to the actual volume is about 5%. Four controls are enough to get good results but more images are needed, estimated about 115 until 220 images. All in all, it can be concluded that the low cost UAV has a potential to be used for volume of water and dimension measurement.